for Asian studies “Sri Aurobindo kultūros židinys”
In this article, the
condition of cultural heritage in the Upper Garabagh after the armed conflict
in 1988 between Armenia and Azerbaijan has been discussed. The survey shows the
role of Shusha as a cultural cradle of Azerbaijan. From the given data, there
is evident that in occupied territories of the country an outward as well as incorporeal
heritage, i. e. architecture, art,
music and literature suffered heavy injuries. The loss of the region inflicted
humanitarian catastrophe and ruined the continuity of long-lasting tradition.
The conclusion has been made, that destruction of local monuments and artefacts
does great harm for the state of Azerbaijan. Restitution of the Upper Garabagh is one of the main questions of the day,
because every nation has a right to use its heritage freely.
Garabagh, destruction, culture, heritage, law.
the middle of the 20th century to this day with the end of the Cold
War humanity faces new grave wars and military conflicts, which in the
beginning of the 21st century only grow in scale and means. Many
human rights organizations register demolitions and human losses in the Middle
East as well as in occupied Crimea peninsula (Ukraine), injured parts of former Soviet Union
Republics Georgia, Moldova, or autonomic regions like Chechnya, not to mention
earlier ethnic and religious wars in Balkans, conflicts between India and
Pakistan, Israel and Palestine, or situation in Afrika. The Upper Garabagh is
one of such violent points in a map of the world. Military acts produce severe
damages to the people and environment, unleash millions of refugees, and the
whole international life turn into tense, unsafe and timeless field of battle.
Beside human victims,
the entire layers of historical and cultural legacy suffer extinction. In a
modern global world-view and with the rapid progress of technical revolution we
can see that question of Upper Garabagh esquires a
new dimension and importance.
Though the “Nagorno
Karabach issue” has roots in the 18th century, and in 1923, when
NKAO was established, Shusha, Khankandi and 115 villages in Shusha district, 52
villages in Javanshir district, 30 villages in Garyagin district, and
Galadarasi from Gubadli district were included in NKAO,
only after December 1, 1988, when Armenian Soviet Social Republic adopted the
decision joining the NKAO to the Armenia SSR, the most violent changes started.
The scale of destruction in the Upper Garabagh considering cruel genocide
against Azerbaijanis and other peaceful population, 1 million refugees,
expropriation of wealth, homes and lands, and almost total demolition of
buildings can be compared with those which took place in Palmyra or Allepo
In his speech at the
opening of the “4th Islamic Solidarity Games, Baku 2017” on the 10th
of May, President of the Republic of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev said:
UN and OIC resolutions, which clearly recognize Armenia as an aggressor, must
be the main message to all Muslim countries that want to develop relations with
invader because Armenia’s policy of occupation is an attack not only on Azerbaijan’s
religious and cultural assets, but on historic and cultural legacy of Islam in
general. Hundreds of Islamic culture monuments, mosques, temples, cemeteries,
etc. were destroyed in the territories occupied by Armenia, and all this was
confirmed by the OSCE fact-finding missions. I also have to note that Pakistan
and Saudi Arabia refused to officially recognize Armenia because of its
occupation of the Azerbaijani territories, while Turkey has not established any
relations with this country. Currently five Muslim states have officially
recognized Khojaly genocide. We consider all this as an example of brotherly
relationship and real support.”
To the problem of
security was dedicated another big event – the “4th
World Forum on Intercultural Dialogue, Baku 4-6 May 2017”. For the first time,
heads of more than 25 international organizations participated in the forum,
joint high-level meeting of the heads of these organizations and 40 sessions
and events took place. “The people of Azerbaijan make significant contributions
to the traditions of tolerance at worldwide level, to develop and popularize
the traditions of multiculturalism”, President Ilham Aliyev stressed in an
opening speech on the 5th of May.
Indeed, in a light of the Upper Garabagh conflict we can wonder at the
patience, diplomacy and integrity of the nation. The provisions of the
international agreements on the topic are being strictly followed, and many
efforts made on the highest levels to solve this problem. Azerbaijan is opening
itself to the world with a peace offer, but requires the same honesty from
other countries. Culture is more and more recognized as a powerful mean for
this task. The core of such understanding didn’t change in UNESCO’s program
since 1945. “This is not a ‘clash of civilizations’. This is a clash between
those who do not believe that we can live together, and those who believe that
we can. […] Safeguarding culture is far more than a cultural issue today – this
is about peace-building”.
Still until present
day the problem has not been solved. That means, that it calls for different
point of view from the side of international community.
Reasons of cul-de-sac regarding Upper Garabagh conflict
After the World War II
Stalin tried to occupy a part of Turkey and called it “Western Armenia”, and
Upper Garabagh was presented to the society of Armenians as a key issue for the
action. When the plans did not come true, Stalin invented compensation for wounded
feelings of Armenians on an account of humiliated Azerbaijani minorities in
Armenia. That way the theme of famous deportations was raised, and during
Soviet time there have been two large-scale deportations of Azerbaijanis
From that time, Armenian expansionism grew in scale and fulcrum. As stepping-stones
served petition of 45 000 “workers” from NKAO to the Soviet government in which
they complained about bad economic and cultural conditions, the strait request
from Yerevan “to give back to Armenia Nakhchivan and Upper Garabagh”,
removing of Heydar Aliyev from the high position in Soviet cabinet of Ministry in
1987 by Mikhail Gorbachev, setting up of the “Karabach” committee and so on. To
this end helped propaganda campaign, formation of negative opinion about
Azerbaijan, even armed provocations and terrorist attacks. In the eyes of the world Armenia became a
victim, not an aggressor, and in the process of negotiations both sides seem standing
on the same level.
Even more, the manipulation with the so-called “Armenian genocide”, supposedly executed
during Ottoman State times, plays decisive role in making decisions on an international
basis. Nevertheless, such historians as Musa Gasimli pay attention to the
necessity to scrutinize real facts: “The falsification of historical truths by
Armenians is gaining ground and moreover, the issue built on the fake history
has become an instrument of policy used as leverage against Turkey”.
At the same time “a historian may be impressed by the reliable sources
reflecting the slaughter of Turks and Azerbaijanis and their eviction from
their homes for the sake of creating ‘Great Armenia’”.
From the beginning of
1992 the Armenian troops occupied the last populated areas of Azerbaijanis in
Garabagh, then Shusha, which was strategically important cultural center of
Azerbaijan, and after this they took Lachin, Kalbajar, Aghdam, Fizuli,
Jabrayil, Gubadli and Zangilan. Nowadays more than 20% of territories of
Azerbaijan are occupied by the Armenian armed forces. As a result, 20 000
Azerbaijani died, 100 000 persons were wounded, 50 000 persons became disabled.
Especially brutal cleansing happened in 1992 over the night on February 25-26
in Khojali: the city was raised to the ground, burned, 613 persons were killed,
487 people became invalid, 1275 inhabitants were taken hostages while the fate
of 150 persons remain unknown to this day.
The four UNESCO resolutions 822, 853, 874, 884 and 7 statements of the chairman
of Security Council determined territorial integrity, sovereignty and
inviolability of borders of Azerbaijan. The President of Azerbaijan Ilham
Aliyev held more than 70 meetings with co-chairs of OSCE Minsk group, many
summits tried to find a solution in Moscow, Washington, Geneva, Yalta,
Istanbul, Davos, New-York, Minsk, Paris, Key West, Sochi, Chisinau, Prague,
Strasburg, Warsaw, Astana, Kazan, Bucharest, Saint Petersburg, Zurich, Munchen,
Madrid, Toronto, Lisbon and other places including the border of two republics
– Sadarak. Unfortunately, organizations’ activity in the peace process didn’t
have any result. The representatives of the USA, Russia and France refused to
recognize Armenia as an aggressor. As prof. Elchin Axmedov points out, “this is
an international crime”, because the Republic of Armenia breached all main
principles of international law in all legal documents (i. e. United Nations Charter’s Articles I and II, CSCE/OSCE in
Helsinki Final Act, conventions and resolutions on prevention and punishment of
the crime of genocide).
To the present day international community demands to end the conflict by peaceful means, though according to the press-media, armed provocation thus violating armistice, from the Armenian side in the occupied region happen almost every day. Similar neglect regarding Minsk protocols can be seen in the Russian-Ukrainian conflict. One of the correspondents has noticed, that to live in the “Black Garden” and in Armenia altogether became difficult task: poverty, bribes, dictatorship and hostility towards non-Armenian people is a commonplace thing. Not seeing any perspectives, every year 23-37 thousand persons leave Armenia, about 40% of population emigrated to foreign countries escaping from hunger, unemployment and devastation.
To our point of view, phenomena mentioned above – natural consequences of vandalism. Rebuilding of the region requires huge investments. The colonists themselves need relief. Further, the main question arises, what to do in the area, which is wiped out of its cultural layer? As a result of occupation nearly 900 residential areas, 22 museums and four art galleries, nine historically important palaces, 40 000 museums, 44 temples and nine mosques were destroyed, plundered and burnt. In addition, 927 libraries, 4.6 million books and valuable historic manuscripts were annihilated. According to estimations, apart from moral and psychological damage, Azerbaijan’s economy suffered around $320 billion loss. 
The regulating of the
conflict by peaceful means came to the dead end, but only in talks, because the
real situation shows marks of non-stop moves to the chauvinist ideas’
realization. OSCE Minsk group prefer mutual compromise, but to make compromises
with the aggressor or terrorists is illegal and unlawful, that’s why the
principle of “double standards” covers the unwillingness to take the
responsibility. On the other side, the President of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev at
every important occasion reminds, that today’s Armenian state was established
in former Azerbaijan land, in Erivan khanate and Zangazur district, and
Armenians living in Upper Garabagh are one of the national minorities of
disagrees with Armenian future plans, and this country is not going to accept
Upper Garabagh as a part of Azerbaijan and to end aggressive policy. Armenia
pays no attention to the Resolutions of UN. But Azerbaijan can restore its
territorial integrity using military way and will never let to create the
second Armenian state on the Azerbaijani land. The conflict actually only grows
and if not solved, it can burst into another bloody tragedy. That’s why studying
of facts and presenting them to the international society as well as
highlighting the humanitarian disaster rightly is the main direction of the
foreign policy of Azerbaijan. It is rather regrettable, that the results of the
“Great Armenia” project have not been put clearly for the Armenians, that their
utopian ideas can’t come truth, or that there can’t be any winner in territories,
which lie in ruins. In some of them,
according to Azerbaijani academicians, nuclear waste was landfilled, in the
parks old trees cut down,
and instead narcotic plants grow.
The deepening of humanitarian catastrophe
propagandists know that in order to prove the “ancient historical territories”,
not only artificial legends and myths are welcomed, but the change of material
evidences is even more important. They change hydronyms and toponyms in
Republic of Armenia which have foreign roots and in occupied territories create
supposedly Gregorian heritage, especially in religious aspect.
Ismayilov points out in his book on the aspects which are unknown to the international scientific
community, cultural heritage is cultural and historical wealth
of nations. Destruction, demolition or vandalism of one nation’s cultural
heritage by other nation or folk, or nations or folks is unacceptable. Such acts are considered
unacceptable under international laws and conventions. Hague Convention of 1954 for the “Protection of
Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict” highlights this: “It is a
task of State Parties to protect cultural values, to safeguard movable and
immovable cultural property such as monuments of architecture, art or history,
and archaeological sites situated within their own territory as well as within
the territory of opponent in the event of armed conflicts. The Parties of the Convention should pass laws in their
legislation to penalize those who commit or order to be committed a breach of
According to the
press service of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
of Azerbaijan, the issue of protection of cultural property in the occupied
territories to be discussed by the Committee was initiated by Azerbaijan in
2012, and according to the resolution of
2012, the Secretariat was tasked with preparing a proper document on the
protection of cultural property in the occupied territories. The document
prepared by the Secretariat includes the legal analysis of clauses concerning
occupied territories in the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of
Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict and its two protocols and the
provisions concerning the occupied territories, the implementation mechanisms
of relevant clauses, and other aspects. The possibility of sending to occupied
territories technical missions of UNESCO is mentioned in the conclusion of the
document in order to monitor the state of the protection of cultural property
in occupied territories.
The document also reflects the protection of
cultural property in the occupied territories in resolutions adopted in the UN
Security Council (UNSC) and the General Assembly (GA) by the Director-General of UNESCO.
Azerbaijan art occupies an independent, very
significant place in the art heritage of the East. Thearchitecture of Caucasian Albania – one of the
first Christian states in the world – is a separate page in the history of
Azerbaijan architecture. “This architecture was severe according to its forms,
almost deprived of decor. Interiors were solved in simple and severe lines”. F. Ismayilov writes about
the reasons why to the present day surviving Albanian monuments hardly reflects
the true history:
“In 1836 the Alban Patriarchate church was abolished and Russian Tsar Nicholas I signed the particular decree for transfer its property to Armenian Apostolic Church. Soon after this Alban state and religion lost its independence as a result of densely settlement of Armenians in the western areas of Caucasian Albania, more precisely, in the Karabakh region from the end of the 18th century, and the process of armenization and gregorianazation of local people began. This event was a cause for the destruction or armenianization of Christian cultural heritage in Transcaucasia. Thus, the manuscripts in the Caucasian Albanian churches were translated into Armenian and the original manuscripts burned and the inscription samples were changed in the interior of monasteries.”
Explaining pre-Christian symbolism of Alban
cross stones or sarcophagues, investigator admits that Armenian do not eccept
Turkic symbols or any other authentic remnants on historical and cultural
monuments in Garabagh, either. He describes how “renovated” were Aghoghlan
castle in Lachin (4th century), Ganjasar monastery in Kalbajar region and every
officially registered or officially not registered historical and cultural
object in seven occupied territories and in Upper Garabagh. In the 18th century there appeared a series of khanates
among which the biggest were Garabagh, Ganja, Erivan, Shaki, Shirvan. Karabalayi-Safi
Khan Garabaghi (1817-1910) created original architectural school and built
almost all the major religious buildings in Shusha.
Nakhchivan – one of the most ancient towns of Azerbaijan
having important strategic location. In the 12th century the town went through
the period of high rise of architectural-building activity. The outstanding
architect Ajami ibn Abubakr Nakhchyvani (1136-1225) was the founder of Nakhchivan school. His masterpieces are mausoleums. Not
only in occupied regions, but in Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic acts of
vandalism can be traced.
In fact the book on Armenian vandalism is
detailed wrap-up in names, numbers and units, which abundantly shows misdeeds
of occupants. There is given the total amount of the damage incurred to
historical and cultural monuments in the occupied territories of Azerbaijan – $177 000 000 000. Besides falsification of the inner and outer surfaces of
artefacts, Armenians create special “Gregorian” cemeteries, the objective of
which is to
create the impression of Christian lands in these areas to any foreigner who
visits Garabagh. But in fact there is no information about finding Armenian scripted stone or cross stones in
South Caucasus territory until 20th century, thus “we can come to such a
conclusion that the currently demonstrated samples of Armenian art stones were
placed after the occupation of these territories by Armenians.”
Above all, the only church in Shusha city was not an Armenian church but
Russian (khanate’s courthouse serving as a church after 1805).
İnteresting fact comes to the surface about strange constructions – memorial
ensembles, which have no similarities in the world, because they are built in
the territory of Azerbaijan, but are raised to the memory of the terrorists who
committed the bloody massacres in Azerbaijan and in other parts of the world.
More than 1 million Azerbaijani refugees and their posterity can’t visit native
places, homes and cemeteries of relatives in Upper Garabagh. They are robbed of
the most vital part of individual and collective body of the country with all
the consequences. That is why the government of Azerbaijan pays so much
attention to Upper Garabagh and Shusha as a historical craddle of distinct
culture, which is most important for the future of people and world cultural
heritage in particular.
Shusha – heart of Azerbaijan
Panah Ali Khan made Shusha the capital, after strengtening he turned
it into Gala-city. During his reign there was a lot of construction work in the
city. Only the number of architectural objects here equals to about two
hundred: castles of Ibrahim Khalil Khan and his daughter, Gara Boyuk khanum,
Ganja Gates, the fortress wall etc. In the 18th century many craftsman quarters
were created in the city, rapid development was in trade. There were cathedrals,
a two storeyed caravanserai, and magnificent Juma mosque. In the first half of
the 19th century the population of the city increased to 20 thousand. In 1832
in the Shusha uezd there were
numerous factories: 42 silk winding workshops, 28 cotton processing factories,
30 leather processing factories, 1 brick factory an so on. Shusha was known as
the jewellery centre of Azerbaijan, at the same time the city was the centre of
famous Garabagh carpet school. The 19th century was marked by strong cultural
rise in Shusha. Poets, painters, astronomers, architects, doctors and other
representatives of elite lived here. It was the birth place of writers Suleyman
Sani Akhundov, Abdurrahim bey Hagverdiyev, Najaf bey Vezirov, poetess Khurshid
Banu Natavan, poet Gasim bey Zakir, painters and architects Latif Karimov,
Jalal Garyaghdi, Nadir Abdurrahmanov, Togrul Narimanbayov, physician Karim bey
Mehmandarov, and others. Literary, musical and other societies, madrasas,
schools and colleges flourished and made Shusha a perl of Azerbaijan.
But the greatest achievements was done in music sphere. Shusha became
a musical academy of the Caucasus. The Garabagh mugham school has a reputation
for the best. Special form of mugham is Segeh,
which is highly ellaborated and emotional. In 2003 Azerbaijani mugham was
identified as a “Declared Masterpiece of Oral World Heritage by UNESCO”.
Shusha gave to the Near East
such famous singers, as Haji Husu, Mashadi Isi, Abdulbagi Zulalov (Bulbuljan),
Jabbar Garyagdi oglu, Mashadi Mammad Farzaliyev, Kechechi oglu Mahammad,
Sadikjan, Mashadi Zeynal, Mashadi Jamil Amirov, Segah Islam, Zabul Gasim,
Mutallim Mutallimov, Khan Shushinski, Gurban Pirimov, Seyid Shushinski, Bulbul,
Rashid Behbudov and others. Shusha is famous for the prominent composers born
here: Fikret Amirov, Zulfugar bey Hajibeyov, Niyazi, Afrasiyab Bedelbeyli,
Soltan Hajibeyov, Ashref Abbasov, Zakir Baghirov, Mehdi Mammadov, Suleyman
Aleskerov. Among them Uzeyir Hajibeyov, or Hajibeyli (1885-1948) was a founder
of nacional music culture in Azerbaijan, the author of the first national opera
(“Leyli vә Mәcnun”), ballet and operetta,
and talented playwright. With him worked such stars as conductor Muslim
Magomaiyev, soloists Saravski and Sevched Mamedova, his brother Jeyhun. U. Hajibeyli
is an author of national anthem.
In Shusha was born and died poet, artist, music historian,
astronomer, carpenter, chemist and matematician Mir Mohsun Navvab (1833-1918).
He penned more than 20 books on various topics related to science and arts.
Among his major contributions is the treatise “Vuzuh-ul-Argam”, which focuses
on the study of 82 mughams and folk songs. He also created the first typography
in Shusha and Azerbaijan, first literary and music societies.
Shusha with beautiful nature, geographical location is a fortress
with vital strategical importance. Mountain-climatic and balneological resorts
of Azerbaijan were situated here. Visitors could find here fresh air, mineral
springs, medicinal plants and flowers (Khari Bulbul flower doesn’t grow in any place
of the world), recreation places, and famous Garabagh horses.
After the invasion of Armenian armed forces in Shusha on May 8, 1992,
many monuments and buildings were destroyed. The tragedy still rings in peoples
ears. Famous writer Anar in his book “Hotel Room & Other Stories” describes,
how vivid memories of witnesses are after many years. From this book it is
evident, that for Azerbaijanis Shusha represents not only the loss of
territory, but the irreparable loss of cultural roots that date back centuries.
On his way to Istanbul the main character of the novel Karim
refreshes reminiscences about Shusha: every step reminds him of native cuisine,
relatives, childhood and games, waterfalls, rivers, fregrancies and dear things
was coming alive again for Karim – voice by voice, inch by inch, scent by
and finally – painful and terrible scenes of Khojaly massacre. In his
conversation with Turkish traveler Karim argues the reasons of the Upper
“He spent considerable time explaining that this
was not simply a war about Karabach, and that was not even a war between
Armenia and Azerbaijan. He told how major nations were supporting the conflict
and were pursuing their own self-interests. He said that war was not just being
fought on the battlefield but in a broader arena – in the capitals of major
countries – in places where interests clashed between international
corporations, major banks and dealers in arms, drugs and oil.”
But the man questions Karim as everybody did in 1993: “This situation
depresses me. How is that the Bosnians fought to the last drop of blood to
defend their land? How is it that our own young people sacrificed their lives
for the sake of the lands in northeast Turkey? How could the Azerbaijanis give
up their lands so easily without struggling and fighting for them? Isn’t this a
shame of you?” The Karim’s unswer is this: “Come to Baku and I’ll take you to
Martyrs’ Lane. When you see the hundreds of graves in that cemetry, you won’t
be ashamed of your Azerbaijani brothers”.
İt is necessary to make a stress, that artists, writers and people of
culture can play very important role in presenting the core of the problem to
international opinion and people of good-will. This is a great task for the
scientists, too. F. Ismaiylov in his study proposes, that currently the occupied territories
and lands of historical and cultural significance of Shusha should be
considered as special reserved territories and protected by the relevant
agencies of the UN.
By giving proposals how to protect Shusha State Historical – Architectural
Reserve, author elaborates long perspective for the future tasks. Lastly it is
hard do not agree with the researcher, that the protection of Shusha historical – cultural reserve
would be a model indicator for the protection of the part of the world culture.
Operational and investigative
measures of crimes commited in occupied territories as well as contribution of
professionals of various kinds will help to introduce the scale of the Upper
Garabagh’s humanitarian catastrophe to the mass media, world community and
change the attitude of the responsible institutions. In that respect efforts of
the Heydar Aliyev Foundation, especially its president (at present – UNESCO and
ISESCO goodwill ambassador Mehriban Aliyeva), joint efforts of leading State
bodies and allies abroad must give positive result.
analysis of Upper Garabagh conflict shows that Armenian armed forces did
illegal crimes against human rights and territorial integrity of Azerbaijan, and
injured its historical and cultural heritage. In order to get Armenian armed
forces out of occupied parts of Azerbaijan another kind of measures must be
taken into account. The country is ready to solve the problem in any way, which
is in line with the international law, but conscientious attitude from the
Armenia is important to prevent future amplification of the conflict. İt must
be noted that Azerbaijan is giving the rare example of patience and wisdom in
conducting negotiations and prooves its high ancient culture and traditional
processes and tense time, similar conflicts in a world suggest that
humanitarian catastrophe probably would come to an end on a larger scale and in
more than one country. Azerbaijan can become first of them. To the conclusion
of the study it can be said, that reorganization of the UN Security Council
should be indispensable in a near future together with strenghtening of NATO in
order to protect every human being from agression and injustice, because every man
and nation has a right to live in peace at home, has a birthright to enjoy
fruits of cultural heritage.
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Autonomy? The Making of Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Region 1918 – 1925. In:
Europe – Asia Studies, 02 Feb 2012.
Tadeusz. Russian Azerbaijan 1905 – 1920. The Shaping of National Identity in a
Muslim Community. Cambridge University Press, London New York New Rochelle
Melbourne Sydney: 1985.
Swietochowski Tadeusz, Collins C. Brian.
Historical Dictionary of Azerbaijan, No. 31. The Scarecrow Press, Inc. Lanham,
Maryland & London: 1999.
Gintaras. Juodojo sodo tragedija. Mokslotyros institutas, Vilnius: 2016.
Waal, Thomas de. Black
Garden. Armenia and Azerbaijan trough Peace and War. New York University Press,
New York and London: 2003.
DAIVA TAMOŠAITYTĖ, Ph.
D. (b. 1963) has an MA in music from the Lithuanian Academy of Music and
Theatre. She studied philosophical thought of Aurobindo Ghosh in New York and
L. A., USA (1993-4), Sri Aurobindo Ashram Archives, Pondicherry, India (1995,
1998 and with the post-doctoral scholarship in 2010). Tamošaitytė is
an author of one monograph, 44 research articles, more than 400 critical papers
on music, literature and political philosophy, several original books and
translations from English. She defended her philosophical thesis The Feminine Principle of Shakti in Sri
Aurobindo’s Concept of Indian National Identity at the Culture, Philosophy
and Art Institute in 2009. 2005-16 she was a research fellow at the Lithuanian
Culture Research Institute, Fellowship of Department of Contemporary
Philosophy. Tamošaitytė is currently a member of board of
association for Asian studies “Sri Aurobindo Kultūros Židinys”, has a
certificate of the Artist of the Republic of Lithuania from Lithuanian Writers
Union and Lithuanian Musicians Union. Research interests: Asian studies,
contemporary East and West philosophy, musicology. Mailing address: Totorių
str. 19-15, Vilnius LT-01121, Lithuania, email@example.com
Hasanov, Ali. Stages of Ethnic Cleansing and Genocide Against the Azerbaijanis.
„Zerdabi LTD“ MMC, Baku: 2017, p. 103.
 Aliyev, Ilham. “The strengthening of
Islamic solidarity is a challenge of time”. Speech, In: http://azeridaily.com/politics/28817
Ilham. “Advancing Intercultural Dialogue: New Avenues for Human Security, Peace
and Sustainable Development”, opening speech. In: http://azeridaily.com/politics/28689
 Bokova, Irina. Foreword In:
Interculturalism at the Crossroads. Ed. Fethi Monsouri, UNESCO, Paris: 2017,
course, the idea wasn’t entirely new: similar ethnic cleansing Armenian
nationalists committed in 1905-1906 and 1918-1920.
 Ismailov, Eldar. Arcachskij ston po
povodu sovetskoj istorii Nagornogo Karabacha. In: Karabach.
Istorija v kontekste konflikta. “Vestnik”, Sankt Peterburg: 2014, p. 275.
 Foun, Rik. Nezavisimostj balkanskich
gosudarstv I konflikt vokrug Nagornogo Karabacha. In: Karabach.
Istorija v kontekste konflikta. “Vestnik”, Sankt Peterburg: 2014, p. 377.
 Gasimli, Musa. From “The Armenian Issue”
to “The Armenian Genocide”: In Search of Historical Truth (1724-1920). “N print
studia” LLC, Baku: 2015, p. 6.
 Әhmәdov, Elҫin. Ermәnistanin Azәrbaycana
tәcavüzü: Tәhlili xronika (1987-2011). Baki: 2012, p. 481.
 Ibid., p. 489-491.
 Visockas, Gintaras. Juodojo sodo
tragedija. Mokslotyros institutas, Vilnius: 2016, p. 121.
Ali. Khojaly Genocide: Causes, Consequences and International Recognition.
„Zerdabi LTD“ MMC, Baku: 2017, p. 133.
forest case led to mass demonstrations in Baku.
Faig. Damage to the Historical and Cultural Monuments. In The Occupied
Territories of Azerbaijan. Baku: 2016, p. 10.
C. Architektura Seki-Zagatalskoj zony Azerbaidzana. Baku: 2011, p. 67.
Faig. Ismayilov, Faig. Damage to the Historical and Cultural Monuments. In The
Occupied Territories of Azerbaijan. Baku: 2016, p.13.
 Ibid., p. 54.
is one similarity in building strategic occupational ideologies in former
Soviet Republics. Red army and every move of Soviet soldiers from 1939 in
Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania, including forceful recruiting of men during
World War II, in Baltic States is known as aggressor’s acts. In the last few
years after the occupation of Crimea a new phenomenon is taking place. In
Lithuania Russia finds cemeteries of Russian soldiers, renovates them and builds
memorials. In a monograph by five authors – S. Kulevičius, N. Černiauskas and
others (“Kariai. Betonas. Mitas: Antrojo pasaulinio karo Sovietų Sąjungos karių
palaidojimo vietos Lietuvoje”, Vilnius: 2017), they give facts, that in such
cemeteries the numbers of names are doubled, and 50% of fake places of
commemoration grows in centers of towns. How it becomes powerful strategy in
using feelings and Geneva convention, shows the moving of bronze statue of
Soviet soldier and remains to the cemetery from the center of the city in
Estonia, which was met by official condemnation from the Russia, riots and cyber-attacks.
Investigation shows, that in many places are buried not soldiers, but
collaborates who perpetrated genocide against civilians and partisans, fighters
for the freedom. There were even shameful accidents, when instead of monument
for the Lithuanian freedom-fighters, “memorial” for “istrebiteli” (Soviet
terminators) has been raised.
of the most incredible thefts happened with U. Hajibeyli’s “Arşin Mal Alan”,
when Armenian presented it as a work of Armenian Sedrak Magalian; in US it was
on stage and even filmed in Hollywood as Armenian property. Some role in this
plagiarism played so-called Association for Culture and Education, which engaged
in Armenian cultural propaganda.
 In: Anar. Hotel Room & Other
Stories. Azerbaijan Literature Series Vol. 4, Azerbaijan International,
Los Angeles and Baku:
2017, p. 34.
 Ibid., p. 22.
 Ibid., p. 21.
Faig. Damage to the Historical and Cultural Monuments. In The Occupied
Territories of Azerbaijan. Baku: 2016, p. 71.